(Will be reworked and updated)

What is a haplogroup?

The study of haplogroups is a useful way to confirm lineages and to understand the deep historical origins of populations. Mutations are what make us all unique genetically speaking and autosomal tests like ancestryDNA tell us parts of our recent genetic origins. Every generation a person inherits half of their DNA from each of their parents eventually sharing little to no genetic material to their ancestors. The Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA’s genetic markers on the other hand mutate at a much less frequent rate. The Y chromosome traces back a person’s paternal lineage while mitochondrial DNA (or mtDNA) traces back a person’s maternal lineage. In the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, it is common for individuals to have a European paternal haplogroup and a non-European maternal haplogroup. This confirms the history of European men coming to these islands and having children with non-European women.

There are some complications when researching haplogroups as it is possible that documentation does not tell the truth. With DNA testing non-paternity events (men being misattributed as biological fathers) are found to be a common occurrence. This makes the need to test many people to confirm distant lineages. Based on historical and cultural practices, there is more confidence that a direct lineage of women would be reliable. There have been cases of individuals not inheriting their mothers mtDNA which should be noted when conducting this research. When a haplogroup connection can be confirmed it can prove invaluable for a lineage's genealogical history.

Dominican Republic

Estrella - R-BY3222 (R-M167)

The Estrella family in Santiago are known to descend from the three brothers: Jacinto, Juan, and Santiago Estrella. They resided primarily around Canabacoa and Santiago de los Caballeros with a branch of the family existing in Salcedo, Hermanas Mirabal. The Estrella of President Juan Rafael Estrella Ureña have also been confirmed to be from this same lineage. Big Y testing has determined the haplogroup of this lineage as R-BY3222.

Fernández - R-CTS241 & R-L21

One Fernández family connects back to Santiago after having spread out to La Vega and neighboring areas of Cibao. These testers are decedents of the branches that remained in the countryside of Santiago. Represented testers originate from Baitoa, Las Charcas, La Cruz de Copellar, Puñal, Sabana Iglesia, and nearby areas.

Núñez - R-FT25346 (R-M167)

The Núñez family of Santiago originate with Isidoro Núñez born in the early 1700s and his two sons: Isidro and José. Big Y testing has determined the haplogroup of this lineage as R-FT25346 and likely being of an Iberian origin.

Rodríguez - R-P311

The Rodríguez that originate from San José de las Matas since the late 1600s are one of the oldest documented families in the region.

Tavares - R-P311

The Tavares family of Santiago originate from the last Canary Island migration in Santiago. Modern variants of the surname inculde Tavares, Tabares (Cuban branch), and Tavarez.

Taveras - R-P311

The Taveras family of Santiago originally used Tabera and Tavera. It is uncertain if this surname is connected to Tavares. This specific family originate from Dicayagua.

Beatriz Pérez - L2a1

Beatriz Pérez was the daughter of Manuel Pérez and wife of Clemente Pérez. Her daughter, Prudencia had two natural children with José María Núñez. A daughter, Reina Julia Pérez Núñez, populated Baitoa with this haplogroup. This is the maternal lineage of actor Manny Pérez.

Simona Grullón - L3b

Simona Grullón was the wife of Juan Tineo Gil. Her maternal haplogroup indicates an African origin. It would appear that the Tineo all have African roots through her. This is the maternal lineage of general Fernando Valerio.

Micaela Rodríguez - U5b1d1

Micaela Rodríguez married Fernando Rodríguez and had María Rodríguez who married Vicente Tineo Tavares. Her descendants married into the Batista, Fernández, and Núñez families.

María Torres - U5b1d

María Torres was a member of the Torres family in San José de las Matas. She married Isidro Rodríguez Ureña (the son of Gonzalo Rodríguez del Rosario and Mariana de Ureña Cespedes) and had a daughter Josefa Rodríguez Torres. Josefa also married into the Rodríguez family with José Rodríguez Tavares (the son of Gonzalo Rodríguez Ureña and Antonia Tavares). Josefa's descendants populated La Vega in the mid-1800s. It is unknown if the two U5b1d haplogroups researched here are the same. This is also the maternal lineage of President Luis Rodolfo Abinader Corona.

Puerto Rico

José Ramón de Santiago - R-Z214

José Ramón de Santiago was the natural son of María de Gracia de Santiago and husband of María Sebastiana del Carmen Martínez Díaz.

Other Haplogroups

These are haplogroups that I have only identified a single descendent and require more tests to confirm the lineage.

Dominican Republic


E-L677 - Juan Batista, son of Ana Batista and hsuband of Hilaria Tineo Núñez

J-CTS5368 - Manuel Pérez, father of Beatriz and Julián Pérez

J-CTS5368 - Ramón Franco Núñez, son of Luisa Núñez Reynoso and husband of María del Pilar Díaz Burgos

R-L21 - Domingo Rodríguez Bourdier, husband of Anastasia Tineo Tavares

R-P311 - Raymundo Núñez, son of Rosa Núñez Reynoso and husband of Clemencia Espinal

A2 - Juana Fernández, wife of Jacinto Estrella

A2 - Antonia Tavares, wife of Gonzalo Rodríguez Ureña

A2 - María Francisca Díaz, wife of Juan Tineo

A2 - Luisa Veras, wife of Silvestre Guzmán

L1b1a3a - Estevania Jiménez, wife of Luis Jiménez

L1c1c'd - Josefa Jiménez, wife of Francisco Tineo Grullón

L2b1a2 - Lucía Núñez, wife of Juan Tineo Jiménez and mother of María Ignacia and Hilaria Tineo Núñez

L2b2 - Carmen de Peña, wife of José de Peña

L3b1a - Justa del Rosario, wife of José María de Vargas Valerio

La Vega

E-M180 - Juan Batista, father of Francisco and Valentín Batista

H2a5a1 - Isidora de Aquino, wife of Pablo Martir & María Aquino, mother of Carmen Aquino

Puerto Rico

San Germán

I-P109 - Gerónimo Ramírez de Arellano

R-U152 - Antonio Torres López, husband of María Eusebia Vásquez Cancel

A2 - Petrona Irizarry, wife of Juan Rodríguez and mother of Petrona Rodríguez y Irizarry


R-L21 - Juan Pedro Galarza, husband of Juana Muñoz

A2 - Juliana Rivera, wife of Martín González

C1b - Margarita de Torres y Camacho, wife of Antonio de Santiago

L1b1a7a - Ana/Francisca Rodríguez, wife of José Díaz de Espinosa



R-U152 - José Antompietri


R-Z192 - Ange François Tomei, husband of Marie Élisabeth Pieretti and father of Vicente Tomei Pieretti